Saturday, January 25, 2020

Developing Diversity in the Clinical Psychology Profession

Developing Diversity in the Clinical Psychology Profession The profession of clinical psychology is currently  predominately  predominantly white, female and middle class. What can  be done to ensure that we become a more diverse and  inclusive profession? Word count:1.256 The question of how the field can be made more – can be made more diverse and inclusive is one that has been much explored in the clinical psychology community in Britain as well as in other countries. This essay will examine strategies and initiatives previously put in place in order to recruit clinical psychologists from a wider pool of applicants, and look at how successful such initiatives have been. Finally, the discussion will focus on what seems to be the best way forward for the profession in its efforts to more closely reflect the disparate communities of which it serves. The skewed demographics of the profession might be at least partly responsible for the low usage rates of clinical psychology services by black, ethnic minority and male UK citizens. An influential BPS report entitled â€Å"Widening access within undergraduate psychology education and its implications for professional psychology: Gender, disability and ethnic diversity† was published in recent yearsrecently published (Turpin Fensom, 2004). The report revealed that only 5.8% of UK clinical psychologists were recruited from ethnic minorities, and that a mere 23% were men. These figures called indicated a need for greater efforts to increase the number of recruits from black and other ethnic minority (BME) and disabled communities. The report referred to the work of Davenhill et al. (1989), who made a number of recommendations to widen access of BME groups into clinical psychology training. Unfortunately, little progress was made.[RZ2] The BPS has, however, demonstrated an ongoing commitment to deal with this complex matter, such as the setting up of a ‘Race and Culture Special Interest Group’. Amongst the Group’s aims and objectives is a stated commitment to â€Å"promote strategies that increase Black and Minority Ethnic Communities to the profession of Clinical Psychology, †; [RZ3]and to â€Å"promote the view that training in clinical psychology should reflect the needs of people from Black and Minority Ethnic Communities† (Reference!!!).[RZ4] A notable contribution has also been made by the BPS s ‘Standing Committee for the Promotion of Equal Opportunities’, which amongst other valuable functions, monitors levels of minority representation within the BPS. According to the most recent available figures, these BPS initiatives have not as yet had significant impact on diversity and inclusiveness, but it is perhaps too early to condemn them as inadequate and ineffectual. Turpin and Fensom’s 2004 report (2004) gives interesting figures, showing that psychology is hugely popular as an undergraduate discipline with approximately 80,000 applicants a year, of which 79 percent are female. In the field of psychology, BME students are more highly represented at 12 percent compared with the rest of the population studying other subjects. The same study also found that out of those from a BME background, only 1.4 percent are successful in their clinical training applications, compared with 3.95 percent of those who are white, and 3.5 percent who are male. With regard to clinical training, approximately 9.4 percent of students are of a BME background, whereas only 6.2 percent of these are successful. Of the 90.6 percent who consider themselves to be white however, the success rate is 93 percent. These data point towards highly complex reasons for a profession dominated by white females of a middleclass background. Gender bias in psychology has been recognised for many years (Morris, 1992). It is likely that the nature of the discipline appeals more to females than men. [RZ5]But it might also be influenced by lack of knowledge of the true nature of psychology as well as that of future career possibilities. Amongst the practical measures announced in the BPS report mentioned above, were a recruitment video to be used in schools, and an initiative to make careers advisors more aware of the employment opportunities offered by clinical psychology. [RZ6] It can be argued that the mere process of undertaking clinical training in itself is likely to exclude certain social groups. [RZ7]The ratio of applicants far outweighs the places available, 29.3 per cent in 2002 (Turpin and Fensom, 2004) and this in itself is likely to deter some people. In addition to high academic entrance requirements, s several years of relevant experience is required, Working as an assistant psychologist does not in itself necessarily give opportunities for a career, and even years of experience do not always guarantee acceptance into clinical training. This can give an impression of uncertainty in addition to the likelihood of eventually being in substantial financial debt. [RZ8] All these factors could partly explain the reduction in applications from students from a BME background. Little is known about the perception of psychology as a vocation within or across different ethnic groups and culture. Darr (1998) found that ethnic applicants to higher education undervalued allied health professions as career choice and chose more traditional careers instead.[RZ9] Research has also shown that BME students obtain fewer 2.1 and degrees than their fellow white students (Pathak, 2000). This in itself might partly explain the drop in applications to clinical training, but it does not explain why fewer applicants from BME groups are successful compared to their white peers (Turpin and Fensom 2004, Boyle et al, 1993). Turpin and Fensom doubt that an explicit discrimination factor at short listing and interview would simply account for this. But in addition to the academic criteria and the necessary working experience, applicants are also vetted through interviews and other tasks. (Phillips, Hatton Gray, 2001). It is tempting to hypothesise, building on knowledge from social psychology, that applicants from minority backgrounds may encounter greater difficulties in conveying their knowledge and personal abilities.[RZ10] The important goal of wider diversity within clinical psychology is to ensure that the Mental Health Service can offer adequate therapy for minority and socially excluded groups. More male clinical psychologists from different backgrounds might ensure that the Mental Health Service is accessible to these groups. More research is needed to give an understanding of the gender differences and how psychology is perceived as a career in different ethnic groups. Research into exactly why, or at what stage, ethnic minorities fail in the vetting process might be helpful. [RZ11] References:[RZ12] Widening access within undergraduate psychology education and its implications for professional psychology: Gender, disability and ethnic diversity, (BPS, 2004) BPS Equal Opportunities Policy Davenhill R, Hun H, Piallary H M, Harris A Klein Y (1989). Training and selection issues in clinical psychology for black and minority ethnic groups from an equal opportunities perspective. Clinical Psychology Forum,21 34-36 Darr, A. (1998) Improving the recruitment and retention of Asian students on nursing, midwifery, radiography and physiotherapy courses: A qualitative research study. Bradford and Airedale Health Related Strategy Group. Morris,P., Cheung,D. Smith,H. (1992) How and why applicants choose to study psychology at university. The Psychologist,5, Pathak,S. (2000) Research report topic, race research for the future ethnicity. In Education, Training and the Labour Market. Department of Education and Employment,UK Phillips,A.,Hatton,C. Gray,l. (2001) Which selection methods do clinical psychology courses use? Clinical Psychology,8 19-24 [RZ1] [RZ2]Can you provide a quote from the report here to illustrate why little progress was made? What are the criteria for progress in this area? [RZ3]What are these strategies? [RZ4]Yes, don’t forget to reference this quote! [RZ5]Why? Support this assertion. [RZ6]You may want to consider moving this explanation of practical measures to the previous page, where the question of strategies is raised initially. [RZ7]Why? Are certain social groups less demonstrably likely to display the work ethic necessary to complete clinical training? [RZ8]Good point. [RZ9]Does Darr hypothesise why this might be so? [RZ10]Why is it tempting? Internalized racism? [RZ11]Miid 2:2 Standard. You should consider spending less time describing the particulars of the problem and more time analyzing why the problem exists and what might be done about it. Otherwise, well-written and well-sourced. [RZ12]K c

Friday, January 17, 2020

Cinderella Not a Love Story Essay

A very common fairy tale that we have grown up hearing is the story of Cinderella, a poor girl whose dreams of marrying a prince and living happily ever after, finally comes true after many years of wishing upon a star. Individual writers of the â€Å"Cinderella† story may alter the story, but the general concept is always the same. This classic story has been told to millions of children and is known as a great romance. A romance is supposed to have suspense, anticipation, and a deep connection between the two characters that have and/or are falling in love with each other, and Cinderella is none of those. â€Å"Cinderella† is a great rags to riches story, but it is far from a romance. Cinderella is a 17 to 22 year old girl that suffers from an abusive home life. The abuse Cinderella suffers from is mainly verbal; however, some things in the story could defiantly be considered physical abuse. The abusive is inflicted by her two step-sisters and her step-mother. Since Cinderella’s mother died when she was a small child it is assumed that she looks to her step-mother for approval the way young girls look to their mother for approval. Depending on the version of â€Å"Cinderella† you read her father is either dead, or he is a spineless man who does not protect her from her step-mother and step-sisters. Do to the abusive living environment, Cinderella is looking for a way out, like any young girl would be, that is required to do all the house hold chores and is treated poorly. When Cinderella hears about the ball she wants to go, but deep inside her she knows that she will not be allowed. In Charles Perrault’s â€Å"Cinderillon† a fairy godm other appears, that helps Cinderella in going to the ball. Cinderella knows that if she makes a good impression on the prince that he may want to marry her, which would give her a way to escape her horrible living environment. In Perrault’s and may other version of â€Å"Cinderella† the prince and Cinderella dance until midnight they do not engage in any conversation nor do they kiss. They only simple of affection here is that the prince does not allow anyone to cut in there dancing. When the clock sticks midnight Cinderella leaves quickly because all the fairy godmothers magic is about to wear off. Cinderella accidently leaves behind a glass slipper. If Cinderella didn’t lose the glass slipper the story would be over. That does not show true love. The prince vows to marry the women the glass slipper fits. It’s hard to believe that in the whole kingdom that the slipper wouldn’t fit anyone else. A few things to think about here are what would have happened if the slipper did fit another and what if the slipper was not left. It is hard to believe that the prince loves Cinderella if he cannot recognize her without the glass slipper fitting her foot. In modern day that would be like saying that one’s husband cannot recognize her without her makeup on. If you love someone to the point that you want to share your life entire life with them then you should be able to recognize them regardless of minor changes such as dressed-up or just done rolling in the dirt.

Thursday, January 9, 2020

French Expressions Using Chose

The French word une chose literally means thing and is also used in many idiomatic expressions. Learn how to say above all, at best, to take bad news well, and more with this list of expressions with chose. French Expressions With Chose la chose en questionthe matter at hand la chose imprimà ©eprinted word la chose jugà ©e (law)final decision, res judicata la chose publique (politics)nation, state avant toute choseabove all else peu de chosenot much, very little toutes choses à ©galesall things being equal, all things considered Cest bien peu de chose.Its nothing really. Cest une chose admise que...Its a known/accepted fact that... Cest la chose à   ne pas faire.Thats the one thing not to do. Cest chose faite.Its done. Ce nest pas chose aisà ©e de...Its not easy to... Ce nest pas chose facile de...Its not easy to... Chose curieuse, il...Curiously enough, he... La chose est dimportance.Its a matter of some importance. Chose à ©trange, il...Strangely, he... Chose promise, chose due. (proverb)Promises are made to be kept. De deux choses lune : soit ..., soit ....There are two possibilities: either ..., or .... (Infinitive) est une chose, (infinitive) en est une autre.(Doing something) is one thing, (doing something) is another. Il ny a pas une seule chose vraie là  -dedans.There isnt a single word of truth in it. Il va vous expliquer la chose.Hell tell you all about it, Hell explain it to you. Je viens de penser à   une chose.I just thought of something. Tu lui diras / Vous lui direz bien des choses de ma part.Give him my regards. Voilà   une bonne chose de faite.Thats one thing done / out of the way. à ªtre la chose de quelquunto be someones plaything à ªtre portà © sur la chose (informal)to have a one-track mind à ªtre tout choseto feel a little strange, out of sorts, under the weather prendre bien la choseto take it (e.g., bad news) well se sentir tout choseto feel a little strange, out of sorts, under the weather les chosesthings Au point oà ¹ en sont les chosesThe way things are at the moment. Ce sont des choses qui arrivent.Its just one of those things, These things happen. Cest dans lordre des choses.Its in the nature/order of things. Les choses se sont passà ©es ainsi.It happened like this. Les choses vont mal.Things are going badly. Dans là ©tat actuel des chosesAs matters/things stand right now En mettant les choses au mieux.At best. En mettant les choses au pire.At worst. Mettons les choses au point.Lets get things straight/clear. par la force des chosesby force of circumstance, inevitably avoir un tas de choses à   faireto have a ton/bunch of things to do faire bien les chosesto do things well/properly faire de grandes chosesto do great things ne pas faire les choses à   demi/moitià ©to do things well, (UK) to not do things by halves parler de choses et dautresto talk about this and that prendre les choses à   cÅ“urto take things to heart regarder les choses en faceto face up to things le chose (informal)thingie, contraption quelque chosesomething quelque chose de (bizarre, intà ©ressant...)something (strange, interesting...) Monsieur ChoseMr. Whats-his-name Eh! Chose!Hey, you! Pauvre chose!Poor thing! le petit choseyoung whats-his-name grand-choseThis indefinite pronoun is always used in the negative pas grand-chosenot much, nothing much sans changer grand-chosewithout changing much

Wednesday, January 1, 2020

Water Chemistry Definition and Properties

Of all the molecules in the universe, the one most important to humanity is water: Water Definition Water is a chemical compound consisting of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom. The name water typically refers to the liquid state of the compound. The solid phase is known as ice and gas phase is called steam. Under certain conditions, water also forms a supercritical fluid. Other Names for Water The IUPAC name for water is, actually, water. The alternative name is oxidane. The name oxidane is only used in chemistry as the mononuclear parent hydride to name derivatives of water. Other names for water include: Dihydrogen monoxide or DHMOHydrogen hydroxide (HH or HOH)H2OHydrogen monoxideDihydrogen oxideHydric acidHydrohydroxic acidHydrolHydrogen oxideThe polarized form of water, H OH-, is called hydron hyroxide. The word water comes from the Old English word wà ¦ter  or from the Proto-Germanic watar or German Wasser. All of these words mean water or wet. Important Water Facts Water is the main compound found in living organisms. Approximately 62 percent of the human body is water.In its liquid form, water is transparent and nearly colorless. Large volumes of liquid water and ice are blue. The reason for the blue color is the weak absorption of light at the red end of the visible spectrum.Pure water is flavorless and odorless.About 71 percent of the Earths surface is covered by water. Breaking it down, 96.5 percent of the water in the Earths crust is found in oceans, 1.7 percent in ice caps and glaciers, 1.7 percent in ground water, a small fraction in rivers and lakes, and 0.001 percent in clouds, water vapor, and precipitation.Only about 2.5 percent of the Earths water is fresh water. Nearly all of that water (98.8 percent) is in ice and ground water.Water is the third most abundant molecule in the universe, after hydrogen gas (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO).The chemical bonds between hydrogen and oxygen atoms in a water molecule are polar covalent bonds. Water readily forms hydrogen bonds with other water molecules. One water molecule may participate in a maximum of four hydrogen bonds with other species.Water has an extraordinarily high specific heat capacity [4.1814 J/(g ·K) at 25  Ã‚ °C] and also a high heat of vaporization [40.65  kJ/mol or 2257  kJ/kg at the normal boiling point]. Both of these properties are a result of hydrogen bonding between neighboring water molecules.Water is nearly transparent to visible light and the regions of the ultraviolet and infrared spectrum near the visible range. The molecule absorbs infrared light, ultraviolet light, and microwave radiation.Water is an excellent solvent because of its polarity and high dielectric constant. Polar and ionic substances dissolve well in water, including acids, alcohols, and many salts.Water displays capillary action because of its strong adhesive and cohesive forces.Hydrogen bonding between water molecules also gives it high surface tension. This is the re ason why small animals and insects can walk on water.Pure water is an electrical insulator. However, even deionized water contains ions because water undergoes auto-ionization. Most water contains trace amounts of solute. Often the solute is salt, which dissociates into ions and increases the conductivity of water.The density of water is about 1 gram per cubic centimeter. Regular ice is less dense than water and floats on it. Very few other substances exhibit this behavior. Paraffin and silica are other examples of substances that form lighter solids than liquids.The molar mass of water is  18.01528  g/mol.The melting point of water is  0.00  Ã‚ °C (32.00  Ã‚ °F; 273.15  K). Note the melting and freezing points of water may be different from each other. Water readily undergoes supercooling. It can remain in liquid state well below its melting point.The boiling point of water is  99.98  Ã‚ °C (211.96  Ã‚ °F; 373.13  K).Water is amphoteric. In other words, it can a ct as both and acid and as a base. References Braun, Charles L.; Smirnov, Sergei N. (1993-08-01). Why is water blue?. Journal of Chemical Education. 70 (8): 612.  Gleick, P.H., ed. (1993). Water in Crisis: A Guide to the Worlds Freshwater Resources. Oxford University Press.Water in Linstrom, Peter J.; Mallard, William G. (eds.); NIST Chemistry WebBook, NIST Standard Reference Database Number 69, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg (MD).