Tuesday, December 24, 2019
Target market and competitive analysis It specifies the person who are the main source of income or via whom the business is growing and becoming successful. It means the customers who are likely to buy the product. One should consider numerous steps while considering the target market for the products. It can be divided into following categories: Demographic: It specifies the gender, income and education. In this category the people who are well educated and have knowledge about good and bad products come. In terms of our product, it is launched in China so it will target the educated people of China who believe in quality and standard. Furthermore, females love pets more as compare to men so the other approach will be to target the women of China by giving the best quality and standard of petsÃ¢â¬â¢ food in China market. The good influence on one woman will impact the other women of the society because this gender is the most friendly and information provider gender because information from one woman to other woman transfers very fast. Instead of this the Butch Pet food will target the high income people of China because they love to keep the pets in their houses and farms so by giving promotions and good quality the high income people will be targeted for sale in China. Geographic: It means to target the people on the basis of region, city size and climate. The climate of China is good for Pets so it is a advantage for the Butch company to sell the product over there becauseShow MoreRelatedSwot Analysis : Target Corporation Essay1745 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesTarget Corporation is known worldwide as a large retail chain that brings in millions of dollars each fiscal year. 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Airlines in this industry gain competitive advantages over their rivals throughRead MoreSwot Analysis : Target Strategy1181 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages2017 ANALYSIS OF TARGETÃ¢â¬â¢s STRATEGY IN CANADA MARKET Target, over a 100-year-old company, has been one out of the most leading and popular retail stores business in America, which supplies thousands of product categories for customers every day. Nowadays, Target owns over 1,800 stores in the United States and has a huge amount of employees, 365,000 in all outlets. The success of Target in the domestic market triggers company to expand to a foreign market, in this research, Canadian market will beRead MoreRelationship Between Accounting Technique And Operation Management Tools925 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesOverview: As the most important managerial tool, target costing is widely employed by manufactory to manage the product cost in their operations. Contrasted with previous studies mainly conducted in leader companies, this journal analyzes how the target costing implement in small and medium enterprises(SME). While, the company cannot obtain the competitive advantage with only cost consideration. Besides the simple cost reduction technique, target costing also should be identified as the integratedRead MoreMarketing Positioning1012 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesall know that, there are three steps in target marketing which are market segmentation, market targeting and market positioning. According to Kotler (2010), the definition of product position is Ã¢â¬Å"the way the product is defined by consumer on important attributes Ã¢â¬â the place the product occupies in consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ minds relative to competing productÃ¢â¬ (P280). Furthermore, in principle, a brand must have something special in order to be remembered by the target market. As a consequence, a clear position in
Monday, December 16, 2019
Learning Experience PSY/211 July 26, 2012 Daysi Brown Learning Experience Many Americans have fears of all kinds. One fear is roller coasters. Individuals who have this type of fear may also have the fear of heights and how high the drop is on a loop or how fast the coaster goes. We will write a custom essay sample on Learning Experience or any similar topic only for you Order Now They have the feeling as if they are going to fall if up too high or how queasy their stomach may feel with the thought of approaching the big loop. This type of behavior can come from something as little as tripping off a curb or falling off a bike which triggers them to be afraid or fearful of anything that is high up. When it comes to individuals with the fear of roller coaster there is something in the mind telling them that they are too high up which makes them fearful of the coaster or just the thought of getting on and actually riding The classical conditioning type of learning in which a neutral stimulus comes to bring about a response after it is paired with a stimulus that naturally brings about a response. The learning experience of this type of conditioning is to overcome the fear by trying to find ways to be able to ride the roller coaster. Another way is to research and find ways to help with the feeling of heights and the fear of roller coasters There are ways that to help with this fear by trying to figure out the natural response of the feeling of riding the coaster. Operant conditioning is learning in which a voluntary response is strengthened of weakened, dependent on its favorable or unfavorable consequences. The experience of this conditioning is to have a feeling How to cite Learning Experience, Essay examples
Sunday, December 8, 2019
:An assessment of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s financial results will be based on data from the case and other sources. Recommendations from the assessments performed will be given on what it will take to restore the company to profitability and boost its long-term performance prospects. Spectrum Brands Strategy for Diversification: Success or Failure? When assessing the strategies of CEO David Jones on globalizing RayovacÃ¢â¬â¢s battery and flashlight business during 1999 to 2004, there is the need to consider the purchase of Rayovac in 1996 by a private equity company Thomas H. The purchase agreement for Remington Products Company, LLC was for a price of $222 million, and included assuming RemingtonÃ¢â¬â¢s debt for the twelve months prior to the purchase. RemingtonÃ¢â¬â¢s sales were approximately $360 million with a net income of only $20 million. Remington was the number one selling brand in the U. S. in the dry shaving and personal grooming products categories based on units sold (P. C293). Remington had also acquired the worldwide personal care appliances business of Clairol in 1993; which consisted of hair dryers and stylers, hot rollers, and lighted mirrors. Internationally, RemingtonÃ¢â¬â¢s products were sold in more than 85 countries through a network of subsidiaries and distributors. SpectrumÃ¢â¬â¢s Diversified Industry: Continued Once Rayovac entered into the electric shaving industry, the company consolidated the two companies and relocated the corporate headquarters to Atlanta, Georgia, and all of the manufacturing operations to RayovacÃ¢â¬â¢s plant in Wisconsin. The R D facilities were combined into one department, with closing the distribution and service centers and then relocating those functions to RayovacÃ¢â¬â¢s North American and European facilities. The onsolidated sales management, field sales operations, and marketing were moved to RayovacÃ¢â¬â¢s North American sales and marketing organization (p. C293). In 2005, Rayovac acquired the privately owned United Industries from Thomas H. Lee Partners for approximately $1. 2 billion with the assumption of approximately $880 million of United Industries debt, and a cas h tax benefit of $140 million. In 2004 United had sales of approximately $940 million, was the leading manufacturer and marketer of consumer products for lawn and garden care and household insect control as well as premium branded specialty pet supplies. Once acquired, the lawn and garden products and household insect control divisions operated as Spectrum Brands in the U. S. and as NuGro in Canada. Spectrum Brands included such products as: Spectricide, Vigoro, Sta-Green, Schultz, and C. I. L. in the lawn and garden market; and Hot Shot, Cutter and Repel in the insect control market. The pet supplies division operated as United Pet Group and included products of; Marineland, Perfecto, and Eight in One in the pet supply market. The major customers for all of these products include; Home Depot, LoweÃ¢â¬â¢s, Wal-Mart, PETCO, and PETsMart (p. C293). SpectrumÃ¢â¬â¢s Diversified Industry: Continued Rayovac acquired the privately held company of Tetra Holding, headquartered in Germany for the purchase price of approximately Ã¢â ¬415 million, with annual sales of around Ã¢â ¬200million. Tetra was the leading global brand for foods, equipment, and care products for both fish and reptiles including accessories for home aquariums and ponds. Tetra operated worldwide in over 90 countries and held the leading market positions in Germany, the U. S. , Japan and the United Kingdom. Rayovac now had the ability to strengthen the strategic position of the newly created division of pet supplies, and have the leverage needed for the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s worldwide operations. Another move made by Rayovac to strengthen SpectrumÃ¢â¬â¢s market position in aquatic supplies in 2005, was to acquire Jungle Labs for $29 million with additional contingent payment defined by meeting future growth objectives. Based out of Texas, Jungle Labs had sales of approximately $14 million as a leading manufacturer and marketer of premium water and fish care products including; water conditioners, plant and fish foods, fish medications, and other products to maintain an optimal environment in aquariums and ponds. With a proven track record and product line of innovative development and marketing in water and fish care that complemented the previously acquired Tetra, and United Pet Group brands would strengthen SpectrumÃ¢â¬â¢s position in aquatic supplies (p. C293). Spectrum officially changed the name from Rayovac to Spectrum Brands to trade on the New York Stock Exchange as Ã¢â¬ËSPCÃ¢â¬â¢. SpectrumÃ¢â¬â¢s Diversified Industry: Continued The following diversification statement was issued by Spectrum Brands in October 2005 as a commitment to reducing investor and shareholder risks in regards to the growing uncertainties of the global market: At Spectrum Brands we are committed to cultivating a diverse, inclusive and performance oriented culture that encourages all of our people to contribute to their fullest potential. The heart and soul of our company has always been our people. Over the years, our employees have been integral to our successes by living and working with a consistent set of core values. While the world and our business will continue to change rapidly, respecting these values will continue to be essential to our long-term success. Part of what we value are personal differencesÃ¢â¬âwhether they be race, gender, age, religion, culture, ethnicity, veteran status, national origin or physical abilityÃ¢â¬âand the benefits that an array of backgrounds, cultures and thinking styles bring to our organization. As a global consumer products company, we are acutely aware of the ever-changing demographics in our various markets and how these changes will significantly influence our future plans, goals and objectives. We recognize that our continued success at competing for new customers as well as attracting the most highly qualified employees will depend on understanding, accepting and embracing these differences. As we have grown, our company has benefited from the various cultural insights and perspectives of the geographies in which we do business. Much of our future success will depend on our ability to further develop a worldwide team that is rich in its diversity of people, cultures and ideas. To this end, at a recent Executive Committee review, the leadership team affirmed their support for Spectrum Brands actively promoting and supporting diversity and inclusion both in our workforce and through support of the communities where we do business. At Spectrum Brands, promoting diversity and inclusion will not be a Ã¢â¬Å"program,Ã¢â¬ but a philosophy. Treating others with respect and dignity and welcoming individual differences is not only encouraged but expected. This philosophy enhances our competitive edge and ensures our future success in the continually evolving global marketplace. I ask and expect each employee to embrace this philosophy and truly support the development of a diverse culture, throughout the Company, that benefits from the perspectives of each individual (http://www. spectrumbrands. com/corpinfo/). Industry Attractiveness Spectrum BrandsÃ¢â¬â¢ diversified strategy can be measured using analytical measurements of industry attractiveness and competitive strengths. These measurements help show any strategic fits between the industryÃ¢â¬â¢s segments of diversification, both individually and as a group. The first analytical measurement is based on the attractiveness of Spectrum BrandsÃ¢â¬â¢ industries of consumer batteries, pet supplies, lawn and garden, electric shaving, insect control, personal care, and portable lighting. The factors that affect industry attractiveness for these industries are the market size and growth rate, intensity of competition, product innovation requirements, resource requirements, strategic fits with other industries, industry opportunity and threats, social, political, and environmental factors, and industry profitability. Industry Attractiveness: Continued The scores indicate that each product category scored fairly high in market size and growth rate, which shows that they are very attractive industries. The pet supplies products, lawn and garden, and insect control product portions of the United Pet, Spectrum Brands in the U. S. and NUGro in Canada companies scored particularly high in attractiveness. The portable lighting products are the least attractive with scoring a 3. 50 on attractiveness. As a group overall, the industries and product categories in which Spectrum Brands has a presence in are highly attractive, which supports a good outlook for the company with above average profitability. The second analytical measurement is based on the competitive strength of these business groupings. These measurements are based on their competitive strengths in relation to their relative market share, costs relative to competitorsÃ¢â¬â¢ costs, strategic fits with sister businesses, brand image and reputation, the ability to match and beat rivals on key product attributes, product innovation capabilities, and bargaining leverage. The competitive strength assessment for Spectrum BrandsÃ¢â¬â¢ businesses is indicated below. As indicated on the competitive strength assessment for Spectrum BrandsÃ¢â¬â¢ businesses, the results show that in relative market share the top three were: 1) Rayovac/VARTA, United Pet, and the lawn and garden divisions scored very high with 9; 2) Remington shavers scored relatively high with a 7; 3) Remington personal care and portable lighting scoring a 5. In respect to the ability to match or beat rivals on key product attributes, the top three were: 1) United Pet and the lawn and garden divisions scored a 9; 2) Rayovac/VARTA and Remington shavers scored a 7; 3) The insect control division scored a 5. The two divisions that scored the lowest are Remington personal care and portable lighting with having scores of 4 and 3 respectively. These divisions need further analysis in strategic fits with sister businesses to strengthen the brand image and reputation of these product lines, and by means of product innovation capabilities and bargaining leverage with both suppliers and vendors to the advantage of Spectrum Brands. Once these tasks are accomplished the ability to get these brands in the marketplace will be easier; vendors will be more willing to provide Spectrum Brands with more profitable shelving space. Industry Attractiveness: Continued The final analytical tool used to interpret and portray industry attractiveness and competitive strengths is the nine cell industry attractiveness and competitive strength matrix. Each business unit is portrayed as a bubble and is plotted on the nine sell matrix according to the overall attractiveness score and strength score. The size of each bubble is scaled to what percentage of revenues the business generates relative to total corporate revenues. In this instance, Rayovac/VARTA represents the largest bubble, followed by United Pet Group. Industry Attractiveness and Competitive Strength Matrix Industry Attractiveness: Continued The industries that fall into the center square of the matrix are a high priority for resource allocation, followed by the upper left quadrant, and finally the bottom right quadrant as the lowest priority. As shown on the previous page all business units, except for portable lighting, Remington personal care and Rayovac/VARTA are well into the high priority zone and are still in very good positions. As a diversified company, Spectrum Brands has good prospects for overall performance enhancements by concentrating corporate resources and strategic attention on those business units having the greatest competitive strength and positioned in highly attractive industries. Spectrum BrandsÃ¢â¬â¢ shareholders should be pleased to some modest extent with the positions of the corporationsÃ¢â¬â¢ business groups on the attractiveness and strength matrix. United Pet Group is the highest rated, followed by lawn and garden and insect control divisions. If no other solutions can maximized from the sister business, the portable lighting business unit should be considered as a candidate for divestiture. The overall attractiveness and competitive strengths of these industry groups indicate that they are well matched and suited for the future longevity of Spectrum Brands. Spectrum Brands has pursued a strategy of both related and unrelated diversification. The strategy is most accurately characterized as retrenchment and divestiture.
Saturday, November 30, 2019
Moral Issues Behind Keeping Promises The Moral Issues behind Keeping Promises Almost every relationship between two people involves the making of promises to each other. It involves giving each other words that must be followed given any certain circumstance. Therefore, making a promise implies that one will keep it, as in staying true to one's word. With this, one's future actions must lie on the basis of words spoken prior to the action being taken, and it must not stray from this rule. From this, some philosophically interesting issues arise. Morals come into question quite often when promises are made. For whatever reason one person makes a promise to another and for whatever manner he or she makes that promise, they place themselves in a situation similar to or in complete sympathy with the person to whom the promise has been made. With this situation, it is possible that it may not be in the best interest of the person who has made the promise to keep the promise. If such a situation were to occur, the promise will only hold depending upon certain conditions of the case. Thus, if one breaks a promise, it is not necessarily a reflection of that person's ability to keep his or her word. Rather, it is a reflection of his noted decision to put his or her interests behind those of the one whom the promise is for. Such an issue makes promise keeping philosophically interesting since the idea of ?service before self? would never arise if people never made promises. If such a society were to exist, no moral credit would be giv en for keeping a promise, and no feelings of blame would arise when breaking a promise. Therefore, it would be deemed stupid and dangerous to place oneself in a position of future disadvantage. Philosophy
Tuesday, November 26, 2019
A Brief Timeline of Events in America - 1851-1860 The time between 1851 and 1860 was one of great upheaval in United States history.Ã 1851Ã The Treaty of Traverse des Sioux is signed with the Sioux Indians. They agree to give up their lands in Iowa and almost all of Minnesota.Ã The New York Daily Times appears. This will be renamed the New York Times in 1857.Ã A fire occurs at the Library of Congress, destroying 35,000 books.Ã Moby Dick is published by Herman Melville.Ã 1852Ã Uncle Toms Cabin, or Life Among the Lowly is published to great success by Harriet Beecher Stowe.Ã Uncle Sam appears for the first time in a comic publication in New York.Ã Franklin Pierce wins the presidency.Ã The Know Nothing Party is created as a Nativist party opposed to Catholics and immigrants.Ã 1853 The Coinage Act of 1853 is passed by Congress, reducing the amount of silver in coins smaller than a dollar.Ã Vice President William King dies on April 18th. President Pierce does not appoint a new Vice President for the rest of his time in office.Ã Mexico gives land along the southern border of present-day Arizona and New Mexico in exchange for $15 million.Ã 1854 The Kansas-Nebraska Act is proposed that would separate the central Kansas Territory into two with the idea that the individuals in the territories would decide for themselves whether they would be free or slave. However, this was opposed to the Missouri Compromise of 1820 because they were both above latitude 36Ã °30. The act is later passed on May 26th. Eventually this area would be called Bleeding Kansas due to the fighting that would occur over the question of whether the area would be slave or free. In October, Abraham Lincoln gives a speech condemning the act.Ã The Republican Party is formed by anti-slavery individuals who oppose the Kansas-Nebraska Act.Ã Commodore Mathew Perry and the Japanese sign the Treaty of Kanagawa opening ports up to trade with the US.Ã The Ostend Manifesto is created declaring the US right to purchase Cuba or take it by force if Spain does not agree to sell it. When it is published in 1855, it meets with negative public reaction.Walden is publis hed by transcendentalist Henry David Thoreau.Ã 1855 Over the course of the year, a virtual civil war happens in Kansas between pro- and anti-slavery forces.Ã Frederick Douglass publishes his autobiography entitled My Bondage, My Freedom.Ã Walt Whitman publishes Leaves of Grass.Ã 1856 Charles Sumner is beaten with a cane by Preston Brooks on the floor of the Senate for an anti-slavery speech. He does not recover fully for three years.Ã Lawrence, Kansas is the center of violence in Kansas when pro-slavery men kill an anti-slavery settler. Anti-slavery men led by John Brown then retaliate killing five pro-slavery men leading to the name Bleeding Kansas.Ã James Buchanan is elected as president of the United States.Ã 1857 A pro-slavery legislature in Kansas passes the Lecompton Resolution which an election of delegates to a Constitutional Convention. Buchanan supports the eventual Convention even though it favors pro-slavery forces. It is later approved and then rejected. It becomes a point of contention with the president and Congress. It is finally sent back to Kansas for a popular vote in 1858. However, they choose to reject it. Therefore, Kansas will not be admitted as a state until 1860.Ã The Supreme Court decides in that slaves are property and that Congress has no right to deprive citizens of their property.Ã The Panic of 1857 begins. It will last two years and the failure of thousands of businesses.Ã 1858 Minnesota becomes the 32nd state to the enter the Union. It is a free state.Ã Abraham Lincoln and Stephen Douglas meet in seven debates across Illinois where they discuss slavery and sectionalism. Douglas will win the election, but Lincoln becomes a key figure in national politics.Ã 1859 Oregon joins the Union as a free state.Ã Silver is discovered in Nevada leads more people out west to make their fortune.Ã The first American oil well is created when Edwin Drake finds oil in Pennsylvania.Ã John Brown leads a raid at Harpers Ferry to seize the federal arsenal. He is a devoted abolitionist who wishes to create a territory for fugitive slaves. However, he is captured by a force led by Robert E. Lee. He is found guilty of treason and hanged in Charlestown, Virginia.Ã 1860 The Pony Express begins between St. Joseph, Missouri and Sacramento, California.Ã Abraham Lincoln wins the presidency after a hard fought campaign centering on the issues of sectionalism and slavery.Ã South Carolina decides to secede from the Union. The state militia takes over the Federal arsenal at Charleston.
Friday, November 22, 2019
Get Top-Notch Academic Papers From Experts Do you have urgent tasks? Is your assignment complicated that you do not understand how to start it? We are a reputable company that can assist you. We have experts in all fields. They are experienced and have the required qualifications for this type of work. Each of our professionals is an expert in a specific industry, and we consider that when assigning work. Would you love to improve your academic performance? Contact us and enjoy the following benefits on top of quality work: Urgent orders We understand that students can, at times, need services with a fast turnaround. Our company takes care of this by giving your project to a skilled yet fast writer who can handle your work between 3-6 hours based on the workload. However, you may have to pay more for urgent orders. You will pay a fair price when you give us orders with a longer deadline. Strict anti-plagiarism policy Our core objective is to give our clients quality work. We will pass the task through a plagiarism checker before submitting it to you to make sure it is 100% unique. Why Students Ask Us For Help on How to Write an Analytical Essay Students face various challenges in their course of study. One of the significant difficulties includes submitting their academic assignments on time. You may fail to present your work on time because you lack the right skills or realize that you have no idea on how to tackle an analytical task. That is why we offer services that give value for money. We never miss a deadline, and in case you feel that your content needs a few changes, it will be done for free until you are completely satisfied. How to Start an Analytical Essay: Guidelines From Experts There are always dos and donts in everything. Its a no exception in writing an analytical essay. How to start your work determines a lot about its quality. Students tend to be blank, with no idea of where to begin. First of all, before you start composing your project, you should thoroughly understand what your assignment is all about. In simple terms, ask yourself What is an analytical essay? Like any other work, your paper should be structured in three main parts: the introduction, the body and finally, the concluding paragraph, which is mainly a summary of the main points. The introduction should always aim at getting the readers to be interested in what you are writing. The first sentence should capture the readers attention. It must, therefore, be surprising and exciting. Which ways can you hook the reader? You can add a rhetorical question that drives the reader into thinking in a specific way. Secondly, you can include a controversial statement as this gives a reader the urge to know how you are going to support it or how unique your idea is. Thirdly, the student can think of presenting some relevant statistics related to the topic. It is from this introductory statement that the reader can judge if you know how to write a good analytical essay. Next, add a thesis statement. After ensuring that you have a hook that will engage the reader, you need to make a strong claim. The thesis statement should be clear. Structure of Paragraphs From a Professional Point of View In an essay, the thesis statement should be backed up to prove your claims. In this part, a lot of research should be done to get data and facts. The study should support and answer all questions relating to what you are analyzing, be it a book, a film or any other academic work. How you present these ideas is also very important. For instance, make the paragraphs have flow and make sure each section consist of three essential sets of sentences. First, always write the topic sentence. Secondly, have sentences with claims and use evidence to support those claims. These can be three or even more but should not make the paragraph too lengthy. Write the main ideas precisely and avoid beating around the bush. Finally, have a concluding statement that connects what you have discussed in that paragraph and how it relates to the topic sentence. After you have presented your main ideas in the body, one more paragraph is needed to wrap up your main statements: the conclusion. It should not bring out any new thoughts and should not be a direct copy of what you have said in the body. You can relate this to the real world and maybe finish with a quote. The concluding paragraph is just a brief explanation of how to write an analytical essay step by step as it summarizes the main points. Tips for Writing an Analytical Essay from Our Experts Besides knowing what you need to talk about, students need to understand and make use of some tips to ensure they present flawless work. These tips do not just make your work quality, but also give you an easy time to structure and present your content the ideal way. Note that the structure is as important as the ideas to be displayed. Know the Objectives of the Analysis Beforehand First of all, you must know the goal of your analytical paper before you begin to write. Let your intentions be precise, so you do not have to outline lots of irrelevant information. Knowing objectives helps present arguments and claims on what you are analyzing. Ideas can be broken down. Evidence is then researched and written down. Your lecturer can choose a topic for you, or it can be left up to you. If its upon you, the better. Makes sure you decide what you are more conversant about. For instance, in the case of a film, choose the character that motivates you more. Selecting a passionate topic eases your work, and makes it easier to know how to begin an analytical essay. Brainstorm and Select a Thesis Statement Choosing a thesis statement can also be challenging for unskilled students. First, give yourself time to brainstorm and outline ideas of your topic of interest. Pick the main concepts and any texts surrounding it and do not be too quick to dispel other notions that seem unimportant. Always ensure that you have evidence for what you are presenting. You, therefore, need to dedicate plenty of time to collect this information. Lacking evidence makes your work feel like an opinion which can result in you getting low scores. It is therefore essential to gather credible sources and structure of an analytical essay. Contact Us for All Your Academic Needs Our writer will take time to think about the topics you have presented to us. You, therefore, do not have to rush, pressure yourself or mess your grades by submitting tasks that do not meet the required quality and standards. Get in touch with our experts and get tips on how to make an analytical essay that will improve your academic performance. Call us now.
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Ethical - PowerPoint Presentation Example where Starbucks promotes equal opportunity in its hiring practices, makes recruiting decisions based solely on job-related criteria and does not use forced labor. To quote Starbucks; b. Ethical Sourcing Ã¢â¬â Starbucks takes a holistic approach to ethically sourcing the highest quality coffee. Their purchasing decisions includes supporting farmer loans and forest conservation programs to areas where they buy their coffee. Through this ethical purchasing practice, Starbucks is able to help foster a betterfuture for farmers and help create a more stable climate forthe planet. In the business aspect, this ethical practice also helps to provide the company a longÃ¢â¬ term supply ofthe highÃ¢â¬ quality beans it has been offering to its customers. c. EnvironmentalStewardship Ã¢â¬â Starbucks share their customers commitment to the environment. One of its core values is the belief in the importance of caringfor our planet and encouraging others to do the same. It envisions that by 2015, all of its cups will be made up of reusable or recyclable materials. It also endeavors to significantly reduce its environmental footprint through energy and water conservation efforts, recycling and green construction. d. Community Involvement Ã¢â¬â Starbucks endeavors to be a socially responsible member of its community wherever it may conduct business. Fromthe neighborhoods where its stores are located to the ones where its coffee is grown Ã¢â¬âStarbucks believe in fostering thriving communities. Bringing people together, inspiring change andmakinga difference in peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s lives Ã¢â¬â itÃ¢â¬â¢s allpart of being a good neighbor. Also, it aims to contribute one million hours each year to the communities in 2015 (Starbucks). Starbucks implement a zero tolerance compliance to its ethical standards. Any suppliers who fail to adhere to Starbucks their ethical practices are discontinued from doing business with the company. During an audit of its suppliers in 2011, the assessment found that 38
Tuesday, November 19, 2019
Has the emergence of social enterprise provided an alternative to local governments role of providing social well-being - Literature review Example dings of private conversations within the community of social enterprises and discussion of their role within the society, which might undermine the role and need for a local government enterprise in some areas as well. The literature is organised in a manner to facilitate a step-wise understanding of the role of social enterprise in relation to that of the government in provision of social well-being. The paper begins with exploration of the origin of a social enterprise and then putting forth an argument that states that social enterprises can work without much intervention from the government. The review then organises itself for identifying the role of social enterprises and local government in these societal existence and explores various categories that gather instances to depict how social enterprises and the local government act as complements and supplements. It then goes on to discuss why social enterprises can replace local governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s role and concludes in highlighting the similar view. The resource dependency theory states that there exist exchange relationships between firms and their external environment. To make sure that such firms survive long, social enterprises source resources that are the key to attain objectives. The resource dependency theory is relevant in the context of a social enterprise because the board member want to sources resources from all possible places beyond the social economy. Companies tend to rely on scare financial resources and therefore devise strategies to recruit directors who have the ability to influence the world with a view to get the desired resources. The stewardship theory states that corporate governance and the board can influence the behaviour of other people within the organization by performing the role of an advisor and strategy maker. The manager here plays the role of a steward rather than a profit seeker. In case of social enterprises, the stewardship theory is being extensively used because of
Saturday, November 16, 2019
Acceleration Due to Gravity Essay An air track is an apparatus that simulates the effects of frictionless motion. A known mass is attached to an air-cart on an air-track apparatus. Attached by string, the air-cart is pulled by the known mass when hung over a pulley. A spark timer will mark the motion at a frequency of 10 Hz (10 dots/s) on a strip of paper called ticker tape. The air-track will supply air through the apparatus to simulate a frictionless environment, enabling the system of masses to move without an applied force or a frictional force. This experiment will measure the motion of an air cart attached to a known mass by string moving on an air track using kinematics and dynamics concepts. The kinematics concept of uniform accelerated motion and the dynamics concepts of NewtonÃ¢â¬â¢s Second Law and systems of masses will be used. The equations relating to these concepts are: d Ã¢Æ'â= (v_i ) Ã¢Æ'ât+ 1/2 a Ã¢Æ'ât^2 and F_net=ma Ã¢Æ'â . The accepted value of acceleration due to gravity is . See more:Ã Masters of Satire: John Dryden and Jonathan Swift Essay In this activity, an air-cartÃ¢â¬â¢s motion will be graphically analyzed. A mass will be attached to the air-cart by a string and hung over pulley with the other end attached to an air-cart resting on a frictionless surface. The study of the motion of the system of masses will be used to determine the velocity of the masses from an analysis of the displacement versus time data. This velocity will then be used to calculate the acceleration of the system of masses and therefore the acceleration due to gravity. A spark timer will mark the motion at a frequency of 10 Hz (10 dots/s) on a strip of paper called ticker tape.
Thursday, November 14, 2019
Curating has a traditional meaning and context of collection, preservation and presentation. The word curate is derived from the Latin verb curare, to care or to cure. In a traditional view, a curator is tasked to organize, filter, preserve, store and occasionally present art and artifacts in a gallery, museum or library. Historically, curators were not seen as creators of content, but simply as keepers of important objects. In the remix culture of creative commons, fair use and copyleft, the concept of a creator has expanded to include those who reasonably transform and present existing content as something educational, interesting, new or satirical (Cariou v. Prince, Universal City Studios v. Sony Corp., Campbell v. Acuff-Rose Music). Curating is the greatest example of the remixing content. While designing the presentation of objects by making strategic choices considering audience and understanding goals, a curator gathers pieces that already exist in order to provide an interesting or new perspective on a subject. A curator is creating a sensory learning experience to aid in understanding and conversation. A curator is not simply a collector and preservationist, but rather a contributor to the story the art and plays an important role in learning and understanding. Albert Einstein recognized the traditional concept of the collection and cultivation of established theories in science by practicing re combination of knowledge to enlighten new ideas. In a letter to colleague Jacques S. Hadamard in 1945, Einstein wrote: The desire to arrive finally at logically connected concepts is the emotional basis of this rather vague playÃ¢â¬ ¦ taken from a psychological viewpoint, this combinatory play seems to be the essential feature in pro... ...meo and Juliet; the toothpick Bridge you constructed in Freshman Physics, the History paper on the Russian Revolution from Junior Modern History class; the college entrance essays you're forced to produce with the acute understanding of yourself and your life goals at 17. Usually they are treated as separate objects usually sorted into age group piles and filed away. Meaning that all first grade objects are with other first grade objects, second grade objects are with other second grade objects, and soÃ¢â¬ on, chronologically. The ordering is fitted into the academic pigeon holes of age and development on a straight trajectory. This seems arbitrary in significance and experience by simply being ordered by academic year. The misunderstanding in this is that learning doesn't really happen in a straight line or chronological progress, although it can still be progressive.
Monday, November 11, 2019
United Parcel Service (UPS) is the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s largest air and ground package-distribution company, with annual sales of about $34 billion. It is also a leading provider of specialized transportation and logistics services. Following its nearly 100-year promise of the Ã¢â¬Å"best service and lowest rates,Ã¢â¬ this company currently delivers over 13. 6 million parcels and documents every business day within the United States and in over 200 other countries and territories. UPSÃ¢â¬â¢s primary business is timedefinite delivery of packages and documents worldwide. It has established a global transportation infrastructure and comprehensive set of guaranteed delivery services, including integrated supply chain solutions for major companies. UPS is the industry leader in the delivery of goods purchased over the Internet. UPS operates a ground fleet of more than 88,000 vehicles, including its famous brown delivery trucks and large tractors and trailers. In the United States, UPS manages 27 large package operating facilities as well as over 1,000 additional smaller package operating facilities. The smaller facilities have vehicles and drivers stationed for the pickup of packages and for the sorting, transfer, and delivery of packages. UPS owns or leases nearly 600 facilities to support its international package operations and over 750 facilities that support nonpackage operations. This vast ground delivery system is integrated with express air services that use 600 airplanes. UPS operates the ninth largest airline in North America and the eleventh largest in the world. UPS aircraft operate in a hub and spokes pattern in the United States with a primary air hub in Louisville, Kentucky, nd six other regional air hubs in various cities throughout the United States. These hubs house facilities for the sorting, transfer, and delivery of packages. UPS estimates that this integrated door-to-door delivery system carries goods worth more than 2 percent of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s gross domestic product (GDP). The company faces relentless competition from such other organizations as FedEx, DHL Worldwide Express, the United States Postal Service, Deutsche Post, and TNT Post Group. Although UPS is the overall leader, the company is not number one in every way. For example, FedEx, with about $34 billion in annual sales, leads the market in overnight deliveries, whereas DHL is the leader in cross-border (international) express deliveries. To meet competitors head on, UPS long ago started investing heavily in advanced information systems. Technology powers virtually every service the company offers and every operation it performs. UPS offers many choices: overnight air versus low-cost ground delivery, simple shipping or a panoply of supply chain and warehousing services. Customers can choose the delivery option or service that is most cost-effective and appropriate for their requirements. UPS has been using its automated package-tracking system to monitor all packages throughout the delivery process, collecting electronic data on 93 percent of the packages that move through U. S. systems each day. Its customers can track their own parcels and letters using the UPS Web site, and many customers can also track their items on their own computers using a UPS system that the customers embed into their own Web sites. However, UPSÃ¢â¬â¢s competition now uses much of this same tracking technology and is moving into areas where UPS has been dominant. FedEx, for instance, is trying to become a player in ground palletized-freight and international shipping. It wants to funnel package data from all of its operations into a single transparent system. Fierce competition has stimulated UPS to find even more innovative ways of servicing customers while also reducing its own costs. UPS management believes the company is still a leader in reliable package delivery and that its unmatched integrated air and ground network provide it with a level of service quality and economies of scale that differentiate it from competitors. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s strategy emphasizes increasing core domestic revenues by cross-selling its existing and new services to a large and diverse customer base. It hopes to grow its package business by offering services for synchronized commerce, elping customers manage the flow of goods, information, and funds throughout their supply chains. For example, UPS developed Web-based software for DaimlerChrysler AG to manage centrally all parts moving to and from more than 4,500 dealerships. While expanding these services, UPS hopes to limit the rate at which expenses are growing. It is counting on information technologyÃ¢â¬âdriven efficiencies to increase its operating profit. In 2003, UPS announced plans to invest $600 million to simplify and optimize its package-sorting and delivery systems. Management believes that this systems investment will produce significant gains in efficiency, reliability, and flexibility. Once fully deployed in 2007 in over 1,000 UPS package-sorting facilities, these systems are expected to reduce operating costs by approximately $600 million each year. In 2003, UPS domestic operating profit declined $304 million, caused by both slow growth in revenue coupled with higher operating expenses. Higher costs for fuel and higher rents both played major roles in expense increases.
Saturday, November 9, 2019
Through the years, terrible battles have been fought and many lives lost to eliminate slavery in this country, yet it still exists in the form of human trafficking. Globalization, competing economic markets and the population boom have created an environment that is ripe for modern day slavery. It was reported in a recent article in the European Journal of Criminology, all countries in the modernized world, whether it is the United States, Canada, New Zealand or the United Kingdom, can be shown to be active participators in the global market of human flesh, either as a country of origin Ã¢â¬â that is, countries people are trafficked out of; a country of destination Ã¢â¬â that is, countries where trafficked persons end up; or a country of transit Ã¢â¬â that is, countries through which trafficked perÃ sons are moved en route to their final destination. (Winterdyk, Reichel). Trafficking in human flesh is a 32 billion dollar industry worldwide with an inventory of approximately 1 million victims in the United States alone and the number of victims is steadily on the rise (Feingold). Forced labor, domestic servitude, and sexual exploitation are the most prevalent forms of human trafficking in this country, adding nearly 80 thousand victims annually, with children making up 50% of these statistics. Local and federal officials need to do more to bring traffickers to justice and eliminate human trafficking in this country. When asked to consider what human trafficking or slavery means, most people might think back to the era of slave trading. They might picture ships, full of passengers forcibly taken from their villages, sailing across the Atlantic Ocean to America, only to become slaves working on plantations, in the cotton fields, under a grueling sun. Today, those slave ships have become different types of transportation that can contain and move human cargo without easy detection and the people inside the containers have not been forcibly taken. These people are looking forward to a better way of life and believe that they are being helped to reach it. What they donÃ¢â¬â¢t know is that they are headed from bad to worse. George Palermo, M. D at University of Nevada School of Medicine and Medical College of Wisconsin, believes that victims are drawn into the tentacles of human trafficking because of their desire for a better future, to escape social discrimination, or they are searching for honest work to better themselves. Ã¢â¬Å"The dream of a better future pulls them from their home. However, they too often find themselves disillusioned and entrapped in a very debasing situation, and their dreams are shatteredÃ¢â¬ (Palermo 671). With their hopes of that new life dashed to pieces, the passengers begin that new life as modern day slaves, in a strange place, without knowing the language. These individuals will become the newest victims of forced labor, domestic servitude, and sexual exploitation. They will be forced into laboring in places such as sweatshops, farms, and construction sites. They will also be forced into working very long hours, in terrible conditions. These modern day slaves will be forced to reside in places known as hot bunks, with single sleeping quarters, which will be used by rotating shift workers. Victims will face constant verbal abuse and threats of physical violence. They will be compelled to hand over most, if not all, of their earnings to the traffickers. Although most victims may wish to flee, but their fear of physical violence, lack of energy, feelings of guilt, and an overall sense of hopelessness will keep them invisibly shackled to their traffickers. Often times, female victims will find themselves forced into domestic servitude, acting as maids, cooks, or nannies. These victims will lead lives of isolation, having little or no unsupervised freedom, completely cut off from the rest of the world. There will be no privacy provided. Personal comfort will be nonexistent, and they will be forced to sleep on nothing more than a rug or bare mattress in an open area or hallway (Diaz et al. ). Such is the case of a Filipina woman recently rescued from a Maryland couple who forced her into domestic servitude. The couple has been arrested and charged with human trafficking and other immigration violations. According to the indictment, the couple from Maryland enticed the victim to come to the United States to work as their domestic servant. The defendants lured the victim, an impoverished, uneducated, mother of eight children, using false promises of a salary that would support her children in the Philippines. The defendants procured a fraudulent visa to allow the victim to enter the United States; confiscated the victimÃ¢â¬â¢s documents after she arrived; and compelled her labor for 18 hours a day over a period of 10 years, using a scheme of threats, assaults, withholding of documents, withholding of pay and a peonage contract to coerce the victimÃ¢â¬â¢s continued service (Ã¢â¬Å"Maryland Couple ChargedÃ¢â¬ ). Although the numbers of victims of forced labor and domestic servitude are on the rise, sexual exploitation remains the most prevalent form of human trafficking. Sexual exploitation is considered to be non-consensual or abusive sexual acts performed without a victimÃ¢â¬â¢s permission. This includes but is not limited to prostitution, escort work and pornography. Women, men and children of both sexes can be victims. Most disturbing is the number of children that are victims of sexual exploitation. In one report, it is estimated that at least seventy percent of the women involved in prostitution are victims of human trafficking and were introduced to the commercial sex trade before they were eighteen years of age. (Kotrla). Quite often children are abducted and forced into prostitution or pornography and never heard from again. Shauna Newell was one of the lucky ones. At the time of her abduction, she was a typical 16 year old who loved to hang out with friends, so when a new friend invited her to spend the night she was very excited and convinced her mother to allow her to do so. After she did not return home, ShaunaÃ¢â¬â¢s mother called police who took the approach that the girl had run away and took no immediate action. ShaunaÃ¢â¬â¢s family initiated their own search and just by chance on the third day she was spotted in the back seat of a car by her brother at a convenience store. Shauna was rescued but her abductors escaped. As it turns out, the girlÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"fatherÃ¢â¬ was really a convicted felon, and the girl, who had a record of prostitution in Texas, was an accomplice in the abduction. For three days Shauna was beaten and raped. She also contracted an STD. Her abductor told her he had sold her over the internet for $300,000. Fortunately, Shauna was rescued before the deal could take place. Many times the victims of human trafficking come in contact with local law enforcement, but because of a lack of training, the modern day slaves are not recognized as victims but viewed as perpetrators instead. The fear of reprisal against themselves or their family members keeps the victims from speaking out against traffickers. Consequently, they are willing to face arrest and jail time rather than the traffickerÃ¢â¬â¢s anger. Health care providers also come in contact with modern day slaves seeking treatment for injuries inflicted by the trafficker, labor induced injuries, or possibly an STDÃ¢â¬â¢s, yet will not recognize the patient as a victim of human trafficking because they are not trained to look for the appropriate signals. If more local law enforcement and health care providers receive proper training in identifying victims of human trafficking it would be easier to provide the right care and assistance as was the case for one 16 year old girl trafficked from Mexico. In one recently reported incident, a sixteen year old Mexican girl was found to have been trafficked across the US border. Doctors noticed the heavily pregnant girl showed clear signs of physical abuse when she was brought into a hospital in Dayton to give birth. The police were called but the couple who had brought her had already fled. When the girlÃ¢â¬â¢s story emerged, it became clear she had been kept against her will in the nearby city of Springfield and used for labor and sex. Ã¢â¬Å"I thought slavery ended a few centuries ago. But here it is alive and well,Ã¢â¬ said SpringfieldÃ¢â¬â¢s sheriff, Gene Kelly (Harris). During the late 1990Ã¢â¬â¢s the publicÃ¢â¬â¢s interest in human trafficking issues grew and demands for stricter laws against it followed. In response to public demand, the United States government enacted the Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act in the year 2000. This legislation was introduced to prevent trafficking, identify and protect victims, and prosecute offenders. Since 2000, forty two states have enacted their own anti-trafficking laws, yet the expected numbers of arrests and prosecutions not been met whether locally or on a federal level. Miriam Potocki, Director of the National Social Workers Association wrote an article in which she claims that since the date of enactment VTVPA, there has been little transparency or accountability in policy implementation; only a small number of immigrant victims have been identified, and there is almost no evidence regarding effectiveness of victim services, and prosecution is highly problematic. Fundamentally, because there is no rational approach to the policy implementation, public funds are wasted (Potocky). In conclusion, human trafficking violates a personÃ¢â¬â¢s inalienable right to freedom yet there are more victims today than 150 years ago and the United States is not doing enough to eliminate it. Stronger penalties are needed to deter individuals or groups from continuing to exploit victims and force them into slavery, either through forced labor, domestic servitude or sexual exploitation. Local law enforcement agencies as well as health care providers need to be better informed regarding human trafficking issues so they can readily spot victims as well as the traffickers. By providing better rescue and assistance programs for human trafficking victim the Unites States can set the standard for eliminating modern day slavery. President Barack Obama said it best, during his speech at the Clinton Global Initiative in September 2012 when he said, Ã¢â¬Å"Nations must speak with one voiceÃ¢â¬â that our people and our children are not for saleÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"ObamaÃ¢â¬ ). (1645) Works Cited Diaz, Muriel et. al. Ã¢â¬Å"Globalization and Human TraffickingÃ¢â¬ . Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare. 34. 2 (June 2007): p107. Academic OneFile. Web. 12 April, 2013 Feingold, David A. , Ã¢â¬Å"Human TraffickingÃ¢â¬ . Foreign Policy. No. 150. Newsweek Interactive (Sept. -Oct. , 2005), 26-30, 32. Web. Apr. 12, 2013 Harris, Paul. Ã¢â¬Å"Forced Labour and Rape, The New Face Of Slavery In AmericaÃ¢â¬ . The Observer. 21 Nov. 2009. Academic OneFile Web. 12 April, 2013 Kotrla, K. Ã¢â¬Å"Domestic Minor Sex Trafficking In the United StatesÃ¢â¬ Social Work 55. 2 (2010): 181-187. Academic OneFile. Web. 15 Apr. 2013. Ã¢â¬Å"Maryland Couple Charged With Domestic Servitude Of Filipina WomanÃ¢â¬ States News Service 8 June 2011. Academic OneFile. Web. 20 Apr. 2013 Megumi, Makisaka, Ã¢â¬Å"Human Trafficking: A Brief OverviewÃ¢â¬ . WorldBank. org. No. 122/. December 2009. Academic OneFile. Web. Apr. 12, 2013. Ã¢â¬Å"Obama Calls Human Trafficking Ã¢â¬ËSlavery,Ã¢â¬â¢ Announces New MeasureÃ¢â¬ . StatesNewsService. 25 Sept. 2012. Academic OneFile. Web. 21 Apr. 2013. Palermo, George B. , Ã¢â¬Å"From Bad To Worse, A Note On Human TraffickingÃ¢â¬ , International Journal of Offender Therapy & Comparative Criminology, August, 2012, Vol. 56(5), p. 671-672, Web, Apr. 12, 2013. http://ijo. sagepub. com/ Potocki, Miriam. Ã¢â¬Å"The Travesty of Human Trafficking: A Decade Of Failed U. S. PolicyÃ¢â¬ . Oxford University Press. Social Work. 55. 4 (Oct. 2010): p373. Web. 12 Apr. 2013. Winterdyk, John, Philip, Reichel. Ã¢â¬Å"Introduction to Special Issue Ã¢â¬â Human Trafficking: Issues and PerspectivesÃ¢â¬ . European Journal of Criminology. January 2010 vol. 7 no. 1 5-10. Web. April 12, 2013.
Thursday, November 7, 2019
The Supreme Court Case of Gibbons v. Ogden The case of Gibbons v. Ogden, decided by the U.S. Supreme Court in 1824, was a major step in the expansion of the power of the federal government to deal with challenges to U.S. domestic policy. The decision confirmed that the Commerce Clause of the Constitution granted Congress the power to regulate interstate commerce, including the commercial use of navigable waterways.Ã Fast Facts: Gibbons v. Ogden Case Argued: February 5- February 9, 1824Decision Issued:Ã March 2, 1824Petitioner:Ã Thomas Gibbons (appellant)Respondent:Ã Aaron Ogden (appellee)Key Questions: Was it within New York StateÃ¢â¬â¢s rights to issue laws regarding navigation within its jurisdiction, or does the Commerce Clause give Congress authority over interstate navigation?Unanimous Decision: Justices Marshall, Washington, Todd, Duvall, and Story (Justice Thompson abstained)Ruling:Ã As interstate navigation fell under interstate commerce, New York could not interfere with it, and the law was therefore invalid. Circumstances of Gibbons v. Ogden In 1808, the state government of New York awarded a private transport company a virtual monopoly to operate its steamboats on the stateÃ¢â¬â¢s rivers and lakes, including rivers that ran between New York and adjoining states. This state-sanctioned steamboat company granted Aaron Ogden a license to operate steamboats between Elizabethtown Point in New Jersey and New York City. As one of OgdenÃ¢â¬â¢s business partners, Thomas Gibbons, operated his steamboats along the same route under a federal coasting license issued to him by an act of Congress. The Gibbons-Ogden partnership ended in dispute when Ogden claimed that Gibbons was undercutting their business by unfairly competing with him. Ogden filed a complaint in the New York Court of Errors seeking to stop Gibbons from operating his boats. Ogden argued that the license granted to him by the New York monopoly was valid and enforceable even though he operated his boats on shared, interstate waters. Gibbons disagreed arguing that the U.S. Constitution gave Congress the sole power over interstate commerce. The Court of Errors sided with Ogden. After losing his case in another New York court, Gibbons appealed the case to the Supreme Court, which ruled that the Constitution grants the federal government the overriding power to regulate how interstate commerce is conducted. Some of the Parties Involved The case of Gibbons v. Ogden was argued and decided by some of the most iconic lawyers and jurists in U.S. history. Exiled Irish patriot Thomas Addis Emmet and Thomas J. Oakley represented Ogden, while U.S. Attorney General William Wirt and Daniel Webster argued for Gibbons. The decision of the Supreme Court was written and delivered by AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s fourth Chief Justice John Marshall. Ã¢â¬Å". . . Rivers and bays, in many cases, form the divisions between States; and thence it was obvious, that if the States should make regulations for the navigation of these waters, and such regulations should be repugnant and hostile, embarrassment would necessarily happen to the general intercourse of the community. Such events had actually occurred, and had created the existing state of things.Ã¢â¬ Ã - John Marshall - Gibbons v. Ogden, 1824 The Decision In its unanimous decision, the Supreme Court ruled that Congress alone had the power to regulate interstate and coastal trade. The decision answered two pivotal questions about the ConstitutionÃ¢â¬â¢s Commerce Clause: First, exactly what constituted Ã¢â¬Å"commerce?Ã¢â¬ And, what did the term Ã¢â¬Å"among the several statesÃ¢â¬ mean? The Court held that Ã¢â¬Å"commerceÃ¢â¬ is the actual trade of commodities, including the commercial transportation of commodities using navigation. Also, the word Ã¢â¬Å"amongÃ¢â¬ meant intermingled withÃ¢â¬ or cases in which one or more states had an active interest in the commerce involved. Siding with Gibbons, the decision read, in part:Ã If, as has always been understood, the sovereignty of Congress, though limited to specified objects, is plenary as to those objects, the power over commerce with foreign nations and among the several states is vested in Congress as absolutely as it would be in a single government, having in its constitution the same restrictions on the exercise of the power as are found in the Constitution of the United States. The Significance of Gibbons v. OgdenÃ Decided 35 years after the ratification of the Constitution, the case of Gibbons v. Ogden represented a significant expansion of the power of the federal government to address issues involving U.S. domestic policy and the rights of the states. The Articles of Confederation had left the national government virtually powerless to enact policies or regulations dealing with the actions of the states. In the Constitution, the framers included the Commerce Clause in the Constitution to address this problem. Though the Commerce Clause gave Congress some power over commerce, it was unclear just how much. The Gibbons decision clarified some of these issues. John MarshallÃ¢â¬â¢s Role In his opinion, Chief Justice John Marshall provided a clear definition of the word Ã¢â¬Å"commerceÃ¢â¬ and the meaning of the term, Ã¢â¬Å"among the several statesÃ¢â¬ in the Commerce Clause. Today, MarshallÃ¢â¬â¢s is regarded as the most influential opinions concerning this key clause.Ã¢â¬â¹ ... Few things were better known, than the immediate causes which led to the adoption of the present constitution ... that the prevailing motive was to regulate commerce; to rescue it from the embarrassing and destructive consequences, resulting from the legislation of so many different States, and to place it under the protection of a uniform law.Ã¢â¬ - John Marshall- Gibbons v. Ogden, 1824 Updated by Robert Longley
Monday, November 4, 2019
Saturday, November 2, 2019
Parliamentary sovereignty - Essay Example The term freedom or independence here must not be associated to escaping from human slavery in fact over time this term has broadened into its scope and expanded in its meaning and context. In the modern world humans combat for independence and freedom not from slavery but from suppression, inequity, poverty, injustice, discrimination and helplessness.1 Under the establishment of a democratic setup, the body that represents common man and brings his issues to discussion in at the executive level is known as parliament. The term parliament is adopted from a French word Ã¢â¬Å"parlementÃ¢â¬ that means Ã¢â¬Å"to speakÃ¢â¬ and this pretty much determines the function of the parliament in the political machinery of a state. The parliamentÃ¢â¬â¢s main task is to speak for the rights of the people that it represents, at a level that can create an impact, a positive one. Parliament Parliament is the representation of common man at the executive level. The selection of representatives of masses is done through open and transparent elections where the masses participate and vote for their potential representatives. The selection is made on the basis of majority vote and the selected representatives form the parliament of the country. A colossus of powers and responsibility vest on the shoulders of the parliament. Parliament is responsible for raising public concerns and addressing to them as per the demands and expectations of the masses that cast the votes for the selection of parliamentary candidates.2 Parliament empowers the people as it gives them the right to be a participant in the decision making of the state, indirectly. Parliament provides means to the operations of a government. The personnel required to look after the affairs of the state and run various ministries, comes from the parliament and this is where a common man can be a part of the system as his selected candidate is now placed at the decision making slot.3 With great power comes great respo nsibility, the parliament is endowed with the task of legislation. In the greater interest of the public parliament has the additional charge of making, proposing and passing of laws that are to be practiced under the doctrine of state. Parliament also has the power to approve or reject any financial decisions regarding any ventures that come up to the parliament for the final decision. It is totally up to the parliament to decide upon the feasibility and relevance of the venture to its policies and objectives. The presence of parliament also adds accountability in the operation of state affairs. Parliament has the whole sole authority to question the executive and bring him to task for explanation of various actions that has been taken on his behalf. This forces the executive to be extra cautious in his actions and decision making for he stands accountable to general public and hence the parliament. Power of the Parliament The domain of powers that reside with the Parliament of a s tate is defined in the constitution of the country. The powers can be increased or decrease with respect to the significance and spontaneity of the events, and this modification is subject to the passing of bills in the parliament that gain majority of the vote in their favor from the parliament itself. For instance in UK the Bill of Rights 1869 stated that the power to change or amend a law lies with the parliament.